Foot problems with diabetes
Diabetes is a disease which could have many complications. Below is a list of the most frequently seen complications.
Neuropathy (sensitivity disorder)
The nerves in your body make sure you can feel (pain and temperature) and move, but they also take care of sweat and make sure your skin stays oily. Due to diabetes your nerves could deteriorate which would lead to a loss of sensation (neuropathy). As a result, for example: it could occur that you would no longer feel a pebble in your shoe which could lead to skin lesions/wounds. Neuropathy could have severe consequences. Neuropathy is tested with an aesthesiometer (a device which tests your tactile sensitivity) and a tuning fork.
(Diabetic) Angiopathy (vessel problems)
Blood vessels supply the body with nutrients and oxygen, but also transport waste products away. Diabetes can lead to a lesser quality of the blood vessels (angiopathy). If the blood vessels don’t work correctly it could lead to pain complaints during walking (often cramp in the calf). It could also make sure that healing of wounds is slowed down which could lead to infections. The circulation of blood is tested by feeling the pulsations on the foot manually and possibly with a Doppler machine. With this machine the circulation of the artery can be heard.
Limited Joint Mobility
A joint is a place in the body where two bones are connected, but are still able to move. The knee, elbow, ankle and toe are all joints. Due to diabetes the capsule around a joint could become more stiff. This leads to joints not being able to bend as well. This is called limited joint mobility. When your joints (such as your ankle or your big toe) cannot bend as well this changes your walking pattern. Thus excessive callus or blisters could form under the feet, for example.
The cause of wounds
Foot abnormalities, sensitivity disorders and circulation problems could, after a while, all lead to serious complications for diabetes patients. Wounds could form under the feet, which could lead to serious infections or even amputations.